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Brief Introduction to Biomedical Materials


Brief Introduction to Biomedical Materials 2012-12-10
Biomedical materials have direct contact and interaction with biological systems. The biomedical materials are materials which are used to diagnose, treat or replace damaged tissues and organs damaged by disease or trauma of living organisms or enhance the functionality of the living organisms. The biomedical materials research of CISRI relates to the field of cell biology, materials science, engineering technology, clinical applications, etc.
The Nanofil Composite are unlike drugs. The therapeutic purposes of the materials are not realized by the body's chemical reactions or metabolism. But the biomedical materials can be combined with pharmacological effects to even play the role of pharmacologically active substances. The functions of biomedical materials are often realized by being processed into devices or products. The nature of biomedical materials must meet very stringent requirements, and in addition to having physical and chemical properties of specified functions, the biomedical materials must also meet the biological requirements, namely the biocompatibility requirements.
The biocompatibility of biomedical materials is divided into two aspects. The first aspect is blood biocompatibility which means the biocompatibility for direct interaction between cardiovascular system and blood. The second aspect is histocompatibility which means the common biocompatibility for the material in contact with the body tissues and organs. Blood compatibility and histocompatibility are closely related but different. The materials which have histocompatibility may not necessarily have blood compatibility.
The biomedical materials can be divided into medical metal materials, bio-ceramics, bioactive glass, bio-derived materials and medical polymer materials according to composition and properties. The biologically derived materials are a class of materials which are totally or partially composed of processed sterile, non-antigenic and non-living organism tissues. The biomedical materials commonly include pig heart valves and bovine pericardium processed by using glutaraldehyde and processed through fixed forming for artificial heart valves, processed beef tendon for ligament repair, treated human umbilical artery and bovine jugular for vascular prosthesis, regenerating collagen elastin, hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, chitosan, etc.
The biomedical materials can be divided into three types of materials according to the biochemical reactions of the materials in physiological environment. First type is nearly inert biomedical material which can maintain stability in the physiological environment and only have little or no chemical reactions when it is exposed in physiological environment for long term. The second type is bioactive materials which mainly include bioactive ceramics and bioactive composite materials. The third type is biodegradable and absorbent material which can be totally or partially degraded and absorbed in the biological environment, and it mainly includes absorbable bioceramics and biocomposites, biodegradable and absorbavle polymer materials, biologically derived materials, etc.